Phytophthora megakarya

The effects of some selected arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Gigasp

Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals.Phytophthora megakarya was first designated as the species P. palmivora MF3 ( Griffin, 1977) or P. palmivora L type and was described in 1979 as causing a disease of cacao (Brasier and Griffin, 1979). P. palmivora was considered to be the only causal organism of black pod of cocoa. Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in ...

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Phytophthora megakarya, Thevetia peruviana, extract, biocontrol, black pod disease. INTRODUCTION . The protection of plants against crop diseases and . pests is a key factor in the increase of cr op .Stem canker is caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya, the two species that cause black pod disease in Ghana (Dakwa 1987;Luterbacher and Akrofi 1993;Opoku et al. 1999Opoku et ...Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainable disease management strategies.@inproceedings{Franois2019InfluenceOG, title={Influence of Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora tuberculata on tolerance to Phytophthora megakarya in Theobroma cacao under plant nursery conditions}, author={Djocgoue Pierre François and Simo Claude and Minyaka Emile and Tassong Saah Denis and Njonzo-nzo Stephanie Alvine and Taffouo Victor D{\'e ...The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract (AqE), methanolic extract (ME) of Thevetia peruvi ana, and Ridomil on cocoa black pod disease ( Phytophthora megakarya ...Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora are considered the most important for cacao cultivation in Central and West Africa and most studies are related to them (Guest 2007; Adomako 2007 ...Feb 1, 2002 · There was a significant genetic correlation between pod rot rate in the field and leaf test data, so using this resistance test could shorten cocoa tree selection cycles. Cocoa pod rot, caused by different Phytophthora species, is rife in all production zones. Phytophthora spp. control is therefore a major challenge for world cocoa cultivation, and selection of resistant material is a priority ... Phytophthora megakarya is predominant in the Volta region of Ghana and it remains to be seen. whether it can displace P. palmivora from cacao plantations of Ghana as it has in Nigeria and Cameroon ...Phytophthora megakarya est responsable de la pourriture brune qui ravage le cacaoyer en Afrique, mettant en peril la production mondiale de cacao. Cet agent pathogene endemique a l'Afrique y a probablement emerge suite a l'introduction du cacaoyer au 19e siecle. L'hypothese la plus probable est celle d'un saut d'hote a partir d'une plante ...The arrival and subsequent dispersal of Phytophthora megakarya within young cacao plantations, previously free of black pod and containing cacao germplasm that is evaluated for its resistance to P. megakarya, is the subject of an ongoing study in Cameroon. A total of 12 plantations, established in 2006The effects of some selected arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Gigaspora margarita and Glomus mossae on the growth and the role of soluble amino acids of two contrasting cocoa cultivars (ICS84 tolerant and SNK10 sensitive) against black pod disease caused by Phytophthora megakarya were investigated. Root colonization by AM fungi …Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg ...After 36 months of sampling and baiting, P. megakarya was isolated from the roots of four out of 34 shade tree species examined. The host trees were Funtumia elastica (Apocynaceae), Sterculia ...Recent research demonstrates that the number of virulent phytopathogenic fungi continually grows, which leads to significant economic losses worldwide. Various procedures are currently available for the rapid detection and control of phytopathogenic fungi. Since 1940, chemical and synthetic fungicides were typically used to control ...Phytophthora megakarya, on the other hand, occurs only in Africa, but represents a major threat to cacao production, the countries of West Africa being the largest producers of cacao in the world ...Phytophthora megakarya thrives in very humid climates. Although soil texture plays a central role in the epidemiology of some Phytophthora species (Corcobado et al., 2013), there is a dearth of infor-Phytophthora palmivora is the most common, being present in most of the cacao-growing countries around the world, causing yield losses of 20–30% and tree deaths of 10% annually. Phytophthora …Phytophthora megakarya is a plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in West and Central Africa. This pathogen can cause detrimental loss of yield in the economically important cocoa industry. It can damage any part of the tree, causing a wide range in the reduction of yield. A miPhytophthora megakarya has spread westwards from Cameroon through Nigeria and Togo, to the major cocoa producing countries of Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire, and southwards to Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Phytophthora megakarya has become the main yield-limiting factor in cocoa production in the sub region, rapidly surpassing P. palmivora.Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closePhytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycet Two well-established diseases cause the greatest losses: black pod rot, caused by several species of Phytophthora, and witches’ broom of cacao, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. Phytophthora megakarya causes the severest damage in the main cacao producing countries in West Africa, while P. palmivora causes significant losses globally. The genus Phytophthora has been studied at the cellular level, suggest Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and … Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens

Phytophthora megakarya, the causative agent of cacao black pod disease in West African countries causes an extensive loss of yield.In this study we have analyzed 4 libraries of ESTs derived from Phytophthora megakarya infected cocoa leaf and pod tissues. Totally 6379 redundant sequences were retrieved from ESTtik database and EST processing was performed using seqclean tool.Phytophthora megakarya was first reported in 1985, even though there isevidence that the fungus might have existed earlier. Until then. only Phytophlhora palmivora which'In Cameroon, Phytophthora megakarya is the causal agent of black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). Primary inoculum of P. megakarya is located in the soil. With the onset of the rainy season, this primary inoculum is activated and through rain splash cacao pods become infected. From there repeated cycles of pod infection, sporulation, spore ...La production et la pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer due a Phytophthora megakarya ont ete etudiees durant 3 annees consecutives dans un essai diallele complet, 6 x 6, sans les … Expand. 47. PDF. Save. La pourriture brune des cabosses du cacaoyer au Cameroun: mise en évidence d'un caractère de résistance au champ.

Healthy cocoa pods (left), Phytophthora megakarya infected prods (right). In a project funded by the European Union (EU), the research focus is to develop novel ...Phytophthora megakarya is restricted to countries of West and Central Africa and considered to be a significant pathogen only on cacao. Black pod was originally reported to be caused by P. palmivora , but further findings have proven otherwise in that each continent has a complex of Phytophthora species, which induce black pod disease on cacao.…

Reader Q&A - also see RECOMMENDED ARTICLES & FAQs. The impact of soil treatments on black pod rot (c. Possible cause: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the soil amendment with bio-oy.

Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms. Genome Biol Evol. 9(3): 536 – 557. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx021 , [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar] Anderson RG, Deb D, Fedkenheuer K, McDowell JM. 2015.Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora are considered the most important for cacao cultivation in Central and West Africa and most studies are related to them (Guest 2007; Adomako 2007 ...

2015年3月2日 ... 29 Citations · Phytophthora megakarya, a Causal Agent of Black Pod Rot in Africa · Evaluation of the Epidemiological Factors Responsible for the ...IDphy was developed to facilitate accurate and efficient identification of Phytophthora to species, using type specimens from the original descriptions for reference wherever possible. IDphy emphasizes species of high economic impact and species of regulatory concern for the U.S. IDphy includes molecular and morphological tools to aid in ...

Studies of the cacao response to Phytoph Phytophthora Megakarya. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora are oomycete pathogens that cause black pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the most economically important disease on cacao globally. While P. palmivora is a cosmopolitan pathogen, P. megakarya, which is more aggressive on cacao than P. palmivora, has been reported only in West ...Phytophthora megakarya plugs from 3-days preculture was placed at the centre of V8 agar plate. The antimicrobial activities were done according to the method describe by Vinale et al. (2006). The crude organic extract was diluted in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) at the concentration ranging from 25 to 100μg/ml/l/ and 10μl of each concentration ... Phytophthora é um género de protistas que engloba algumaPhytophthora megakarya is the most destructive fungal pathogen on coc Newly encountered pathogens in West Africa (Cacao swollen shoot virus and Phytophthora megakarya) and Asia [Ceratobasidium (aka Oncobasidium) theobromae] are serious problems in those areas, as are other fungi and stramenopiles with wider geographic distributions. The ranges of the major pathogens and the impacts and losses that result …caused by Phytophthora megakarya and. Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa, Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110 (2004) 983–990. [22] Jackson G.V.H., Sources of Phytophthora. palmivora inoculum in Solomon ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of oyster The arrival and subsequent dispersal of Phytophthora megakarya within young cacao plantations, previously free of black pod and containing cacao germplasm that is evaluated for its resistance to P. megakarya, is the subject of an ongoing study in Cameroon. A total of 12 plantations, established in 2006 on lands free of cacao cultivation for at ... Black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora megakarya, isIn Cameroon, various species of Phytophthora exist but the mosCrude extracts from Thevetia neriifolia seeds after maceration in dif Pod rot, caused by several species belonging to the genus Phytophthora, is the main cause of cocoa harvest losses worldwide. Among the methods making up integrated disease management (IDM), the creation of resistant cultivars has been identified as a priority in cocoa breeding research programmes. To that end, various experiments have enhanced knowledge about the genetic basis of resistance to ...CropProtection23(2004)415-424 Impactofremovingdiseasedpodsoncocoablackpodcausedby Phytophthora megakarya andoncocoaproductioninCameroon M.Ndoumbe-Nkenga,C.Cilasb,E ... megakarya, P. capsici, and P. citrophthora [8,9]. Sev The arrival and subsequent dispersal of Phytophthora megakarya within young cacao plantations, previously free of black pod and containing cacao germplasm that is evaluated for its resistance to P. megakarya, is the subject of an ongoing study in Phytophthora megakarya is the most virulent Phytophthora species repor[Fungicides are the main pesticide used to control Phytophthora meSep 14, 2021 · Phytophthora pod rot disease Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) is an hemibiotrophic oomycete capable of infecting over 200 plant species including one of the most economically important crops, …